Slight Customization!! Dramatic Before & After

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Slight Customization!! Dramatic Before & After
To overcome the increasing trafficking loads in the 1960s,
the JNR (Japan National Railways) had kept increasing the number of trains.

And here was a train that had a certain problem.

*the image is of Kuha583.

They were the series 581 and 583.

Seated Limited Express during the day, a sleeper express train during the night,
the train that could switch between seated car and sleeper car.

As it doesn't require a steam train, it can easily turn back at the end stations.
It can also be powered by either direct current or exchanged current too.
(Plus the series 583 can even take the exchange current of 50Hz (Eastern Japan) and the 60Hz (Western Japan) too.)
So as long as the JNR rail of the area is electrified, it can run basically almost anywhere.

As it runs regardless of day or night,
it did not require a garage.
One could say this was the ultimate limited express train.

However, the long distance trains were reducing in number since the creation of bullet trains, and this also reduced the use of the series 581 and 583 as well.

The trains weren't old enough to be dismantled, so the question was, how to make use of the series 583? This was the beginning of the search for the new way of use for the trains.

Right around this time, the JNR were lacking cars for local trains due to area expansion and frequent requirement.

So JNR had hoped at this time that the reformers(?) could turn this limited express to a local train.

Due to complicated reasons, the places to be modified had to be of bare minimum.
So the reformers had to transform this under such limitations.

Here is the explanation of areas that were modified...

A) The small window at the upper sleeper car had been removed due to the possibility of it causing corrosion.
B) Some of the windows had been enabled to open.
C) The number of doors had been increased.

Other than that, the gears had been changed to that of the local train, from the ratio used for the limited express. The Pantograph had been reduced from 2 per car to 1 per car. The cars for use in the Tohoku and Kyushu regions had been stripped of the direct current electric equipments.

The reformation was expected to go smoothly, but there was another problem that arose.

As the local trains were shorter in formation compared to the limited express, there was a lack of the leading car with the drivers seat, leaving the middle train to be left over.

So the reformer turned their eyes on this part of the middle cars that were being left over.

The reformer ordered for item similar to this from the factory.

So, what was to going to happen?

Right, lets take a look at the change, shall we?

Leading Car (Before)

Leading Car (After)

With a hint of its appearance as a limited express,
the night train image color had been removed,
and changed to cream with green stripe, for a brighter impression.

The door had been increased to 2 places, allowing more people to get on or off the local train. The windows can also be opened, so the passengers can freely open the windows to their likings, and feel the breeze of the seasons.

Middle Car (Before)

Middle Car (After)

So mind-boggling!
The cars that used to be in the middle of formations before,
had been given a drivers room.

The cars that we thought would never be at the lead position,
had been presented with a brand new face!

The group dispatched to the Kyushu Region is the series 715,
Group dispatched to the Tohoku Region is the series 715, car 1000s,

And the Hokuriku Region group is the series 419.

So this was the start of the lives of series 581/583.

[Trains introduced this time]
- Series 583 (on sale from Kato, Tomix etc. at N-scale)
- Series 715 (on sale from Micro Ace etc. at N-scale)
- Series 419 (on sale from Micro Ace etc. at N-scale)

By Kapinozuka

Btw, this face that was shoved onto the middle car.

Its nickname is "loaf of bread"

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